PropositionAll non-Jews do not fit under the category of stam(simply) "goy" in regards to halachah.
I'll show that stam goy cannot study Torah. Bnei Noach can, however, do as many mitzvot as they want. By law of exclusion, I'll show how the stam goy is not the same as bnei Noach.
"A goy who studies Torah is obligated to die"
"גוי שעסק בתורה, חייב מיתה"
- Hilchot Melachim 10:9
Statement 2"We should not prevent a ben Noach from doing Torah mitzvot, in order to receive a reward from doing so, provided he performs it as required."
- Hilchot Melachim 10:10
Therefore, because bnei Noach can do any mitzvot which would include the study of Torah as defined in Statement 2, we can deduce that they are not the goyim referred to in Statement 1.
Also, by definition, bnei Noach are not idolators, yet we know that stam goyim are, by definition from Argument 1. Therefore, we can say that bnei Noach can study Torah and do any other mitzvot they would like.